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Friday, August 6, 2010

Three principles for identification of deprived persons, amount and the method of reallocation in SEBI's disgorgement process - Justice Wadhwa Committee

SEBI’s Disbursement Process of Disgorged Amount in IPO

It is with regard to the disbursement of reallocation amount to investors from the amount disgorged in the matter of IPO irregularities. 

Justice Wadhwa committee submitted its report to SEBI while concluding that reallocation in terms of shares will not be practical it enunciated three principles for identification of deprived persons, amount and the method of reallocation, as under: (Source: PR No.93/2010)

I. Quantification of the amount of unjust enrichment: The gains associated with the number of shares allotted to applicants who had illegally cornered shares in the IPOs shall be treated as unjust allotments / enrichment.

II. Identification of “deprived” applicants: The totally unsuccessful applicants shall have a call on the reallocation. These applicants will be considered for the amount which is the difference of closing price of shares on the first day of listing / trading at NSE and the IPO issue price.

III. Basis for re-allocation amongst deprived applicants: The totally unsuccessful applicants shall be reallocated money value as computed above from recovered unjust gains, till they each receive the gains associated with minimum shares allotted to the lowest category in the IPO.



It is well established worldwide that the power to disgorge is an equitable remedy and is not a penal or even a quasi-penal action. Thus it differs from actions like forfeiture and impounding of assets or money. Unlike damages, it is a method of forcing a defendant to give up the amount by which he or she was unjustly enriched. Disgorgement is intended not to impose on defendants any demand not already imposed by law, but only to deprive them of the fruit of their illegal behavior. It is designed to undo what could have been prevented had the defendants not outdistanced the investors in their unlawful project. In short, disgorgement merely discontinues an illegal arrangement and restores the status quo ante (See 1986 (160) ITR 969). Disgorgement is a useful equitable remedy because it strips the perpetrator of the fruits of his unlawful activity and returns him to the position he was in before he broke the law. The order of disgorgement would not prejudice the right of the regulator to take such further administrative, civil and criminal action as the facts of the case may warrant.

Disgorgement amount = No. of shares allotted to specified persons X (closing price on the date of listing – allotment price in IPO)

SEBI’s Power to Issue directions for disgorgement of ill-gotten gains

In the matter of construction of enabling statutes, the principle applicable is that if the Legislature enables something to be done, it gives power at the same time, by necessary implication, to do everything which is indispensable for the purpose of carrying out the purpose in view (see Craies on Statutes, 7th edn., p. 258). It has been held that the power to make a law with respect to any subject carries with it all the ancillary and incidental powers to make the law effective and workable and to prevent evasion (see Sodhi Transport Co. v. State of UP 1986 (1) SCR 939 at pp. 947-48 : AIR 1986 SC 1099)

In the case of ITO v. Mohammed Kunhi AIR 1969 SC 430, it has been observed as under:

".... It is a firmly established rule that an express grant of statutory power carried with it by necessary implication the authority to use all reasonable means to make such grant effective.


Therefore, in our view, the express grant of statutory power conferred by section 11B carries the authority to use of reasonable means to make such power effective."


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